By Crina Anastasescu, Susana Mihaiu, Silviu Preda, Maria Zaharescu
This publication provides rainy chemical sol-gel and hydrothermal equipment for 1D oxide nanostructure guidance. those tools signify an enticing path to multifunctional nanomaterials synthesis, as they're flexible, reasonably cheap and, therefore, acceptable for acquiring quite a lot of oxide fabrics with adapted morphology and houses. 3 particular oxides (SiO2, TiO2, ZnO) are mentioned intimately to be able to illustrate the primary of the sol-gel and hydrothermal education of 1D oxide nanostructures. different oxides synthesized through this system also are in brief offered.
Throughout the ebook, the correlation among the tubular constitution and the physico-chemical houses of those fabrics is highlighted. 1D oxide nanostructures express fascinating optical and electric houses, because of their limited morphology. furthermore, a well-defined geometry should be linked to chemically lively species. for instance, the natural SiO2 nanotubes provided a mild photocatalytic task, whereas the Pt-doped SiO2 tubular fabrics act as microreactors in catalytic reactions. in relation to titania and titanate nanotubes, huge particular floor quarter and pore quantity, ion-exchange skill, stronger mild absorption, and quickly electron-transport strength have attracted major examine curiosity. The chemical and actual variations (microwave assisted hydrothermal tools) mentioned right here increase the formation kinetics of the nanotubes. The ZnO nanorods/tubes have been ready as random debris or as huge parts of small, orientated 1D ZnO nanostructures on a number of substrates. within the latter case a sol-gel layer is deposited at the substrate ahead of the hydrothermal instruction. utilizing applicable dopants, coatings of ZnO nanorods with managed electric habit will be obtained.
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Additional info for 1D Oxide Nanostructures Obtained by Sol-Gel and Hydrothermal Methods
0 (aq. sol. 7 nm (almost twice the value of anatase lattice parameter) and that the total number of the layers is not equal on both sides of the tubes, indicating that the structure of the tubes is formed by curling up the sheet structures [37, 42]. According to the literature data, for the time being the most widely accepted mechanism of TiNTs formation during the hydrothermal process involves four stages [23, 37, 42, 43, 101, 108–110]: 1. Dissolution of the TiO2 precursor and breaking the Ti–O–Ti bonds in the concentrated NaOH solution 2.
The hydrogen deficiency on one side of layer surface generates a surface tension which increases with an increase in the hydrogen deficiency until driving the surface layer to peel off from the crystal plate and to scroll into a tubular structure. The driving force induced by surface hydrogen deficiency is valid only for single layers, but sufficient to bend multiple layers. Another mechanism proposed by Bavykin et al.  assumed that the driving force for the scrolling of nanotubes is represented by the mechanical stress that occurs in the process of dissolution of the TiO2 precursor and the crystallization of the nanosheets.
The temperatures higher than 130 C could destroy the lamellar structure of the TiO2 that is mentioned as intermediate stage in the formation process of the TiO2-based nanotubes. When the temperature selected was in a higher range from 180 to 200 C and the NaOH concentration is between 5 and 15 M, the main products are nanoribbons, no matter the precursor was crystalline or amorphous TiO2. The conversion from nanosheets to nanotubes or nanofibers occurs at 90 C, but a maximum internal diameter and specific surface area are usually obtained between 130 and 150 C [47, 77, 96].