By Lia Formigari
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Did Jesus upward push from the useless? even if nineteenth- and early 20th-century biblical scholarship brushed aside the resurrection narratives as past due, mythical bills, Christian apologists within the overdue twentieth century revived ancient apologetics for the resurrection of Jesus with more and more subtle arguments.
This 3rd quantity of the enormous remark on Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations covers sections 243-427, which represent the guts of the e-book. just like the past volumes, it comprises philosophical essays and exegesis. The 13 essays hide the entire significant issues of this a part of Wittgenstein's masterpiece: the non-public language arguments, privateness, avowals and outlines, deepest ostensive definition, standards, minds and machines, habit and behaviorism, the self, the internal and the outer, considering, consciounesss, and the mind's eye.
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Extra info for A History of Language Philosophies (Studies in the History of the Language Sciences)
All words that can be used as subjects in propositions are nouns. Thus, in the sentence “non erat in Christo est et non, sed est in illo erat”, the verb (est) is a noun (V, 12–14). Yet, notes Augustine, we can ask what is the name of something, but not what is the word of something (VII, 20). Thus word and name are not one and the same thing. This digression is capped by a ﬁnal image that summarizes Augustine’s thesis that the semantic universe consists in a continuous referring of signs to other signs.
For Aristotle, the notion reﬂects the object, therefore meaning and reference are one and the same. The Stoics, instead, interpose the lekton between the two, which allows them to identify diﬀerent meanings even when the reference is the same (as when one refers to Cicero as the ‘author of the De ﬁnibus’ or ‘Catiline’s adversary’). Closer to the Aristotelian model is Epicurus’s semantic theory, where there is no mediating element between voice and signiﬁed thing. On this point, Sextus (Against the Log.
Prolepsis contributes to recognizing through names (as well as to all other recognizing acts, including non-linguistic ones) by fostering the direct reference between the voice and the object or event. In fact, the immediacy of reference contributes to the eﬃcacy of names. Epicurus’s faith in the proleptic (nondeﬁnitional) power of names goes hand in hand with his contempt for dialectics 29 30 A History of Language Philosophies and its paraphernalia of deﬁnitions and classiﬁcations. In his Letter to Herodotus, he voices an important methodological principle of argumentative procedure: “the primary signiﬁcation of every term employed must be clearly seen, and ought to need no proving […] if we are to have something to which the point at issue or the problem or the opinion before us can be referred” (Diogenes Laertius X, 37–38).